31/05/2017

L'intelligence artificielle par la pratique

images-1.jpegL’intelligence artificielle constitue l’un des fondements de l’informatique contemporaine et joue un rôle fondamental dans de très nombreuses applications. Dès le début de l'informatique, les chercheurs se sont tout particulièrement intéressés a la reproduction de l'intelligence humaine sur ordinateur. C'était la motivation principale pour aller au delà de la simple machine a calculer vers des automates capables de traiter l'information en général de façon intelligente. 

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21/07/2016

Un nouveau monde numérique

Capture-d%E2%80%99%C3%A9cran-2016-06-30-%C3%A0-15.15.32-300x212.pngEntre 1500 et 1900, la population de la planète a grandi en moyenne de moins de trois millions d’individus par an, alors que de 1900 à 2000 elle a grandi de 44 millions d’âmes par an en moyenne. Autrement dit, en à peine 500 ans, la population est passée de moins d’un demi-milliard à plus de 7 milliards d’individus. Il en résulte cette observation aussi implacable que surprenante : le nombre d’êtres humains vivant aujourd’hui sur Terre est supérieur au nombre d’individus qui y ont vécu depuis les débuts de l’histoire écrite !

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18/05/2014

SAP for Universities

The SAP HERUG (Higher Education & Research User Group) members have been active for almost two decades on improving operational and governance processes within their respective institutions. The community of members gathers a rich and extensive collection of experience and know-how around SAP implementation projects and use in productive environments.

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04/12/2013

Crime, Conflict and Security in Cyberspace

Today, cyberspace is where new forms of criminality are being exploited; and cyberspace has become the economic and military battlefield where conflicts of all kinds are played out. The ability to control information and telecommunication infrastructure, to respond to cyberattacks and to ensure cybersecurity offers real power and has become one of the most significant political, economic and technological issues of this twenty-first century. Information and communication technologies (ICT) have grown to become a critical part of our society’s infrastructure, and their potential misuse affects us all, from the individual citizen to private and public organizations and states. thus cyberpower has become the newest means for organisations – both legitimate and criminal – to demonstrate their capabilities.

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29/11/2013

Human Factors in Multimodal Information Management

In the past twenty years, computers and networks have gained a prominent role in supporting human communication. This constitutes one of the most remarkable departures from their initial role as processors of large amounts of numeric data, in business or science, or as controllers of repetitive industrial operations. However, to offer truly innovative support to human communication, computers had to demonstrate that they could achieve more than what telephone calls or videoconferencing could do.

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19/11/2013

Critical Mobilities

The deep transformations associated with the current phase of globalization have prompted scholars to search for new conceptual, theoretical, and methodological approaches to make sense of contemporary social (re)configurations. Most of the critical analyses of globalization within contemporary social theory share the assumption that our times are characterized by increasing mobility, so that “mobility has become a most suitable trope for our time, an era.

accelerating at what seems to be ever faster rates of speed”  The “new mobilities paradigm” , for instance, constitutes the most prominent of these sets of theoretical reflections.

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02/12/2011

La cybersécurité est l’affaire de tous

> Voir le reportage d’Arte

6676709-security-concept-with-businessman-and-hacker-hands-on-laptop-keyboard.jpg

Publié dans La liberté, le vendredi 18 novembre 2011 - Interview de Solange Ghernaouti-Hélie, propos recueillis par Pascal Fleury

Consciente de ses faiblesses, la Suisse prépare une stratégie nationale de cyberdéfense. C’est que la menace est bien réelle. Les explications de l’experte Solange Ghernaouti-Hélie. Ce n’est pas un secret d’État: en cas de cyberattaques massives, la Suisse serait bien démunie.

Pour parer à tout risque de paralysie du pays, le Conseil fédéral a donné la mission au Département de la défense d’élaborer, d’ici à la fin du premier trimestre 2012, une stratégie nationale de cyberdéfense. Un groupe d’experts civils et militaires planche depuis le début de l’année sur un système de milice qui permettrait d’anticiper les dangers et de limiter les dégâts.

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11/11/2011

Les SIG: du rêve à la réalité

10531918-sign-in-stirling-point-new-zealand.jpgIl est difficile d’identifier une date marquant l’émergence des systèmes d’information géographique (SIG) dans le champ du développement territorial. Tout d’abord, ni les SIG, ni le développement territorial ne sont des domaines clairement définis. Il y a encore peu de temps, la notion de développement territorial était bien moins utilisée que celles d’aménagement du territoire, d’urbanisme ou de développement régional. De même, l’utilisation de SIG dans de nombreux domaines s’est développée avant même qu’ils en portent ce nom.

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11/07/2011

Software engineering

kentoh100700467.jpgSoftware Engineering is often seen as a project phase entirely independent from the implementation process. However, a software designer without a good idea of a Web server, or of the structure of a GUI, or of remote calls would be like an architect ignorant of the keystone or reinforced concrete. Developing a complex application requires the understanding of numerous and diverse concepts, scattered across the literature in books representing maybe several thousands of pages. Although no application requires all the features developed by the software community, a software engineer must have some detailed knowledge of those best suited to his or her project; this provides a much needed overview of the concepts that have a potential use in the application…

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08/07/2011

Speech and language engineering

cobalt100800093.jpgThere is a strong difference in focus between the standard practice of theoretical linguistics and the practical needs of the developers of applied Natural Language Processing (NLP) systems. On one hand, theoretical linguists are primarily interested by the fundamental understanding of language, in particular how it functions, and how humans acquire it. In this perspective, they usually carry out in-depth studies of specific linguistic data, sometimes fairly marginal or belonging to dialectal varieties of major languages. On the other hand, NLP system developers need comprehensive descriptions, both in terms of syntax and vocabulary, of the languages to be processed. In this perspective, their main linguistic task is therefore to select a particular linguistic model and to complete within that model the description of the language(s) needed by the targeted applications.

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04/07/2011

The office process redesign language

dogbone66060600021.jpgOffice Process Redesign Language (OPRL) is a language for describing administrative processes in offices. OPRL addresses the problem of how to organize (or reorganize) an office using e-technology1 to the best advantage of the office, with the goal to deliver the required services for the organization to which it belongs. OPRL prescribes an approach to guide office process redesign, emphasizing incremental change and participation. The task of organizing an office involves the definition of: the services to be delivered by the office; the roles and responsibilities of the staff; the procedures to be followed; and the technological support. This task cannot be achieved without dialogue and agreement among the stakeholders of the office process. The purpose of OPRL is to provide support for those involved in office process redesign (managers, office staff, professional analysts and consultants), and to reorganize and implement office systems to improve service delivery and enhance the office-work environment.

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15/12/2010

Savoir utiliser tableurs et bases de données

titelio080200003.jpgDe nos jours, et d’autant plus si nous écoutons les arguments de vente des éditeurs de logiciels et des fournisseurs de matériel, l’utilisateur est à un clic du bonheur cybernétique : Internet, haut débit, applications conviviales, etc. Or il ne faut pas être un grand observateur pour constater que cette situation ne reflète pas la réalité. A la maison, chacun est confronté à l’utilisation de la bureautique, Microsoft Office Excel® (ci-après Excel) et Microsoft Office Access® (ciaprès Access) en tête. Qui n’a pas essayé de tenir un budget ou une petite comptabilité sur ces outils?

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17:59 Publié dans Informatique | Tags : excel, tableur | Lien permanent | Commentaires (0)

07/12/2010

New trends in information systems

alexkalina081100248.jpgIn the recent years peer-to-peer architectures have emerged as a novel architectural paradigm for managing distributed information at a large scale. In peer-to-peer architectures central points of coordination are avoided and replaced by self-organization principles, thus making the systems robust and scalable. This approach has been adopted by a number of highly successful applications on the Internet such as peer-to-peer content sharing and Internet telephony. With the growing success of Semantic Web technologies a natural need emerged for managing also structured data in peer-to-peer settings, resulting in the new research area of peer-to-peer data management systems.

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